One of my family’s quarantine projects is re-assembling all my daughter’s old Lego sets. The pieces from the sets are in several large storage totes, mixed at random from years of building and taking things apart. As I was digging through a box today looking for some specific piece, I started noticing the system I had started to use.
As I looked for a piece, I would start to collect identical pieces and join them up. Joining pieces allows me later to find those pieces later more efficiently, even if I put them back into the box. It also reduced the number of pieces I would have to sort through to find anything. I do this unconsciously because I have done this ever since I was a kid.
Today I realized that this was a perfect metaphor for paying down technical debt.
Grouping the Legos as you are building means that you take a little bit longer on the sets you make at the beginning, but each successive set gets faster. Not only are there fewer Legos to sort through, but the Legos that are there are becoming more and more organized.
When working in a code base that has accumulated a lot of technical or architectural debt, cleaning things up as you go means that your velocity increases over time. Ignoring technical debt is like adding a few random Legos to the box as you take pieces out. Not only does it not get simpler or faster. It gets slower. Eventually, you have to go to the store to buy a new set because it is just easier than finding the pieces for the old one. Or worse, you have to go to eBay and pay twice as much for the same set because Lego stopped manufacturing it. (I am probably abusing the metaphor here.)
I’ve also been thinking about the difference between building a set by pulling out Legos from a big box versus building a brand-new set.
When you build a new set, the pieces come in smaller bags. Lego numbers the bags, so you only need to open one at a time to find the parts you need. Bigger sets may have multiple instruction books, also ordered by number.
The grouping of Lego pieces into bags is a metaphor for Agile software development.
By narrowing the scope and limiting the options, you make the work go faster, even when the problem is involved (like one of their expert models).
The next time you are trying to explain to your product manager (or anyone) why you need to add more tech-debt stories into the backlog even though it means a feature will take longer to deliver, bring in a big box of Legos as a teaching tool. If it doesn’t work, you’ll at least have a fun team meeting…
I was the Chief Technology Officer at Avvo from 2016 until 2018, when the company was acquired. One of the proudest achievements of my tenure there was building a more diverse and inclusive technology team.
While I have spoken a bit about our efforts before in talks, I haven’t written about it. Even though we had done well, I hadn’t achieved the ambitious goals I had set when I joined the company. I was always hoping to do better at my current company, and then use the wisdom from building more diverse organizations multiple times to provide higher-value insight.
Given current events, I hear from friends at tech companies that they are re-evaluating their lack of diversity. They want to improve. While companies have tried different tactics for years, we haven’t made much progress as an industry. If you are trying to address diversity for the first time, it is a daunting task. It is easy to try some things, make no progress, and then give up.
This article isn’t a prescription for improving diversity at any technology company. It is a case study for how we grew diversity at Avvo. The different strategies we employed may be useful for your efforts. They may just inspire you to try new things that are appropriate for your company and culture.
Avvo is an online legal marketplace connecting consumers and attorneys in the US. The company overall was fairly diverse from both a gender and a race perspective. When I joined in 2016, the technology team was a different story.
At the start of my tenure, the organization was not very diverse, as displayed in the charts below. Additionally, there was no one from any under-represented groups with a management title in the Technology team.
The team’s status quo was not the result of overt discrimination, but it did demonstrate a lack of prioritization of diversity, inclusion, and reducing unconscious bias.
My vision for the company was to make it an exemplar of diversity and inclusion within the region. I wanted to not only make Avvo’s technology team diverse to prove that it was possible. I also wanted to show that a diverse group is more than capable. I knew that we could use our diversity as part of our employer branding, helping us stand out in a very crowded market for talent.
Making Improving Diversity a Priority for Technology
I set the tone I intended to take as part of my interview process for the role. I didn’t want any potential for disputes between the rest of the senior leadership and me.
Once I had accepted the job, I had a multiple-month notice period with my former company. I used the time to talk to the Director of Engineering and head of recruiting to prioritize diversity in hiring, set expectations, and start building a better pipeline.
Building a Coalition and Setting Expectations
If you are working to build a more diverse team, you have to get recruiting as your partners on the effort. While it may seem natural, it is not. Recruiting (especially external recruiters) are incentivized or measured on their ability to close roles as quickly as possible. Most recruiters I have worked with are delighted to help find diverse candidates, but it is critical to let them know you understand that it means it will take the whole process longer. It is also essential than their managers understand this.
If you have hiring managers reporting to you, you need to get them on board and excited about this effort as well. One measure of a manager is their ability to hire well. Being serious about diversity will likely mean that they will take longer to fill roles for their team.
You may need to assure them that you will take this into account if they miss their KPIs. You cannot set-up or hold conflicting goals for your managers. If you cannot prioritize building diverse teams over hitting KPIs, you will likely fail at both.
One way to handle the increased time to hire is to start sourcing for a role much earlier than scheduled. Spend the time before the position was supposed to open only looking at under-represented candidates. Create an agreement with your manager that you will be able to hire them if you find a suitable candidate early. If you reach the planned opening date for the role and you haven’t located anyone, you can open the pool to your normal channels without losing time.
Your manager will also need to understand the potential impact of a diversity hiring focus on your KPIs.
With your manager’s support, create a reasonable KPI or OKR as your goal to track your efforts. The OKR should give you not only a target but also some cover if there are challenges to some of the tradeoffs you may need to make because you are hiring more slowly. Share your goal with your team. Update them on your progress regularly. Transparency is essential but also helps to enlist the rest of your team doing their part to help achieve the goal.
At Avvo, my diversity goals were part of my OKRs. I shared our progress with a monthly update to the organization. This repeated communication demonstrated the level of importance I placed on this goal and showed our improvement in real-time.
The good news is that as you make progress towards your goal, your time-to-hire will come down while maintaining or increasing your diversity. It does get easier. You will soon stop making tradeoffs as you continue to improve.
Fixing the Interview Process
When I joined Avvo, the hiring process involved multiple pre-interviews, a do-at-home coding challenge, a review meeting, an in-person interview loop, and a follow-up meeting. The process may have taken a single candidate over a month to get from the recruiter’s first e-mail to an offer. Even without taking diversity into account, it was not an efficient process for a company that wanted to grow.
The Avvo process kept inappropriate candidates out by design. It did not find appropriate candidates, however. In machine learning parlance, the false rejection rate was too high to avoid raising the false acceptance rate. If you are trying to screen out, you miss a lot of good people. Often, biases are part of the filters. Those biases reinforced the lack of diversity.
The state of the current process gave me a license to make some drastic changes. I had the support of the recruiting team and many of the managers. They all had stories of losing good candidates because of the length of the process.
There were some employees and managers who defended the status quo hiring process as required to maintain the quality of the development team. Luckily, they were in the minority. After hearing their position and discussing it with them, I decided to move forward, knowing that I had the support of the majority of the group.
Removing the Coding Challenge
Many companies believe in the at-home coding challenge as a critical way to establish a candidates bona-fides before investing too much time in them. Many sources discuss the problems with coding challenges from a diversity perspective. The arguments against the practice that resonated with me were the following:
Candidates will often take much longer to complete them than companies expect them to. The Avvo guidance was that the candidate should spend no more than two hours on the challenge. One candidate estimated that he spent 12 hours on it. He wanted to make sure that he did well.
A coding challenge is unpaid labor with no value for the results. The demand sends a message that the company places no worth on the candidates’ time. I do know that some companies pay candidates a nominal fee for completing the challenge. I encourage this, but eliminating the challenge also solves this problem.
Not all candidates have sufficient time to work on coding challenges. If a candidate is on a job search, they may get challenges from multiple companies, each with an expectation of hours of work. A candidate may already work at a stressful job or multiple jobs. They may be a caretaker to children or other relatives or have a long commute so that they can live in an affordable home. The candidate may have other issues that require their time. The challenge can be an unreasonable burden for those people.
A coding challenge requires that the candidate have the equipment and connectivity to complete the project. This requirement may not seem like an unreasonable expectation for a software developer, but not every developer may have the economic or personal safety to make this happen.
The combination of all of the above creates a bias towards people who do not have significant constraints on their time and finances. Those biases reinforce and perpetuate the lack of diversity in the industry.
As part of the hiring process, it is still critical to understand a candidate’s technical maturity. We replaced the coding challenge with multiple in-person challenges during the interview loop described later in this article. To not overwhelm our interviewers, we focused on making sure that the recruiter and hiring manager screens established a high culture and technical bar. This expectation on the screening required training the hiring managers on questions to ask for candidates at different levels. As we got comfortable with this process, the new screening process achieved an equivalent level of success identifying candidates while increasing diversity in the candidate pool and significantly decreasing the time-to-hire.
The Interview Loop
There are many articles on reducing bias in the interview loop. We combined the ideas that we felt resonated the best with our culture as well as some of the best ideas I had experienced from prior companies.
We required that anyone participating in the interview loop participate in two training sessions:
An overall interviewer training that myself and the head of recruiting for my team presented. This training included much of the standard content of a traditional interview training effort.
An implicit bias training led by someone from Ada Developers Academy (a Seattle developer training program focused on women and gender-diverse people). We had hired interns from Ada, and their mentors were required to take this course. It was so valuable that we made a deal with Ada to present that class at Avvo from time to time to help with our interviewer training.
We also required that anyone participating in interviews got qualified on the interview questions.
A group of developers for each of the different disciplines got together to create two or three technical problems to solve reflective of the type of work they did every day. Each question had a set of representative answers in a 3×3 grid. One axis represented the candidate’s experience level. The other axis was unacceptable, acceptable, and excellent solutions.
We asked the same questions to any candidate regardless of the level of the role or their experience level. Over time, we added to the set of representative answers as we heard new answers from candidates.
To train on the question, ideally, the interviewer would attempt to answer the problem themselves. Then they would observe a trained interviewer working with a candidate on the challenge twice. Then a trained interviewer would watch them working with a candidate on the question themselves.
Only once all those steps were completed could the person interview candidates. Any trained interview could interview for any team hiring for a role in that discipline. There was no level required for an interviewer.
The Interviewer Panel
We made sure that there was at least one person from an underrepresented group on any interviewing panel. This requirement was challenging at first. Some of the interviewers ended up having many interviews to do.
We felt it was important for two reasons. If we were interviewing someone from an underrepresented group, they would see someone like themselves and would be able to ask questions (if they wanted) about their experience. If we were interviewing someone, not from an underrepresented group, we would potentially catch any red flags that indicated that they might have challenges in a diverse environment.
This practice turned out to be very valuable.
As the interview training required shadowing, almost every interview would have two people from the interview panel. One person worked with the candidate, and one observed the discussion. This pairing meant that the hiring manager got two interpretations of what happened in the meeting and how the candidate responded to different questions. Multiple perspectives were beneficial in reducing the effect of any interviewers’ biases.
We offered to let candidates bring their tools if they chose so that they could be comfortable rather than presenting the candidates with an abstract problem and having them solve it on a whiteboard or a company laptop. The interviewer and the candidate solved the technical challenges collaboratively. This approach mirrored the way that many teams at Avvo worked in a pair-programming style. The goal was to recreate, as much as possible, the actual working environment of our teams.
Gaining Credibility as an Inclusive Technology Employer
Improving our interview process alone wouldn’t make a significant difference if Avvo was not visible in the market as a company serious about diversity and inclusion.
The team already had multiple people volunteering at the Ada Developers Academy but had never hired an intern. We hired our first two interns from Ada in their next cohort.
We followed that by joining the new Washington Technology Associate Apprenti program (a registered technical apprentice program focusing on underrepresented groups and veterans). We hired two apprentices from the first cohort of that program as well.
We always hired interns and apprentices in pairs because we wanted to make sure that they would have someone else going through a similar experience that they could use for mutual support in addition to their Avvo mentors.
Working with these programs let us partner with people deeply enmeshed in the community. We wanted to learn and listen. Working with them also introduced us to their volunteers, often experienced developers from other companies who felt strongly about increasing representation in technology.
Along with our partnership with training programs, we made sure we attended the local meetups for underrepresented groups. Either one of our recruiters, engineering managers, developers, or I would attend these meetups to listen and understand the challenges that these groups faced in the industry. We networked as well, but only tentatively at first. We wanted to establish credibility and not just come to a single meeting and disappear.
The sustained efforts to become a part of the community taught us a lot and raised awareness of what we were trying to do at Avvo. Candidates would apply and mention the different people that they had already met at the company. Avvo was already hosting meetups for different technologies. Those meetings eventually started to become more diverse as candidates from underrepresented groups visited to see our offices.
Evolving the Culture
The focus on increasing diversity did not have universal support. When I joined, the technology team culture was not very inclusive, and some were resistant to making any changes.
I continued to educate and discuss, but I also continued to push firmly forward.
Our agile coaches and I taught new, more inclusive facilitation techniques for meetings and discussions. One of the senior managers started a mentoring program for everyone in the organization designed to support everyone, but especially those who might feel impostor’s syndrome.
Eventually, those who were not interested in the new culture decided to find other opportunities. In the end, this was a relatively small percentage of the team. Most were interested in being part of the new culture.
In under two years, we increased the percentage of women in the technology team from 17% to 27%. We increased the percentage of Black, LatinX, and multi-racial people from 2% to 11%. Our age diversity also improved significantly. We did this while increasing the size of the team by nearly 50%. We also significantly improved our employee net promoter scores during this time.
If one thing stands out to me about what we accomplished during this time, it is a question asked by one of our developers during a town hall right after our acquisition. The town hall was hosted by the acquiring company’s executive team to answer questions from their new employees. The Avvo developer said, “we are very proud of the diversity of our technology team at Avvo. What efforts have you put in place to make sure that your team is diverse?”
There are several people mentioned in this article by title. I do want to acknowledge them here as this was always a team effort and would not have been successful without their involvement and leadership. Specifically: LaQuita Hester, a fantastic recruiter dedicated to improving diversity in the technology industry; Hunter Davis, Director of Engineering and the creator and guide for our mentoring program; Justin Weiss, Director of Engineering; and Leslie Zavisca, Engineering Manager.
Many, many others were instrumental in ways large and small. Every developer, tester, data scientist, and manager helped.
I also want to acknowledge my executive team peers who had built an excellent company and supported me as I brought my team up to a level of diversity closer to what they had created. My executive peers were Mark Britton, Eric Dahlberg, Monica Williams, Bhavani Murugiah, Sachin Bhatia, Kelly McGill, and Jason Moss.
If you are lucky in your career, you will have a few good bosses. They are people who inspire you and teach you how to be a better developer, manager, or person.
Manny Vellon was my first boss at Microsoft. Since leaving college, I had a string of good jobs, but not the best managers. I was a bit raw and somewhat guarded by my experiences.
I was the third person to join the team. There was our Director, Manny as Development Manager and me, so for the first few years, I got to work very closely with him. He had already been at Microsoft for several years in the Developer Tools team, so he had survived and thrived in a callous and competitive culture.
At first, I just respected his programming skill and knowledge. We were building the initial code together. I was amazed at the effortless way he would jump down into the assembly when he needed to understand why some bug was happening.
Once we started making more progress and started meeting with other teams, I was blown away by how he handled the often-tense situations.
Microsoft in the mid-90s was still in its heyday of competitive culture. Disagreements were handled by being louder, making threats, or sneaky political moves to undercut other teams.
In these settings, Manny was the vision of calm confidence, transparency, and good humor. If this didn’t diffuse the situation, he would calmly take apart whatever PM or DM was threatening our team or pounding their fist on the table. They would be left trying to maintain their dignity and backtrack as quickly as they could. He wasn’t cruel or mean. He was firm, he was interested in what was right and would accept no less.
As soon as one of these meetings ended, Manny would be right back to his jovial, wise self.
He was transparent, but not in an obvious way. It was just who he was. He didn’t feel the need to guard information. He knew that I could do my job better if I had the complete picture.
He pushed me to be better, to be more ambitious in my goals. He modeled those expectations himself. If we had a deadline, he was always there, with the rest of the team. Doing whatever he could to push us to hit our commitment. If I got something done but could have done it better, he would challenge me to take it to the next level. Always with humor. He made me feel like it was important to him that I grow. He considered that responsibility as my manager seriously.
A lot of who I am as a leader today comes from the lessons he taught me and what I learned from watching him work. Anyone that has worked with me since then has heard me tell a Manny story or three.
Manny Vellon died on May 27th while hiking.
I had lunch with him a couple of years ago, and I told him how much he meant to me. I am very grateful that I did that. I wish I had kept in better touch with him over the years. I know that there was a lot more I could have learned from him as he moved from Microsoft into starting his own companies and being a CTO.
My deepest condolences go out to his family and friends. There has been a massive outpouring of stories and emotions from the people he touched over the years. My own experience is hardly unique.
In the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, by Stephen Covey, he asks you to imagine your funeral. What will people say about you? What would you hope that they would say? I hope that Manny would see how he positively touched the lives of so many and be content.
My intent with writing this is not just to tell you about a beautiful and inspiring person but also to charge you with that kind of influence on others.
If you are a manager or leader, the behavior you model, and the lessons you impart can change the direction of the people around you. Positively and negatively. What are you modeling? What are you teaching?
If there was someone like this in your life, a teacher, manager, mentor, or friend, tell them. You will be glad you did, and it will mean a lot to them.
While I am an experienced video-conferencer and a reasonably experienced presenter, presenting to a remote audience is still something I am learning how to do. Having just given a talk this morning, I did want to share some things that are working well for me at the moment.
Today I presented from my Mac Mini, and so used a separate webcam. The important thing here is that it was placed above my eye-line and not below. This is a lot more flattering of a view (i.e., not up your nose). If you are presenting from your laptop, raise it so that you get a similar angle.
I only have a single screen, so in presentation mode, I would lose my presenter view. Personally, I heavily rely on the presenter’s view. So I used my iPad with Duet to have a second screen. I use keynote primarily. I’ve noticed that Google Slides doesn’t work well with this setup.
You see my headset mic. Obviously, for a presentation to a group, you want the highest quality audio, an inexpensive headset mic works well. I prefer this over the iPhone style headphones (corded or cordless). The sound is better. If you use a wireless mic, make sure it is fully charged before you begin. At some point, I may switch to a podcaster desk mic, as the headset isn’t that flattering.
What is missing here is a good light. I have a big window to my left and a smaller one in front of me, so I get some natural light. However, most of my lighting does come from ceiling lights, which is not the most flattering on video. I ordered a you-tuber-style ring-light, but it is taking a very long time to arrive. I’ll need to find the optimal place for that light so that it isn’t casting weird shadows on my face.
If you see me speak in person, you will know that I have a tendency to walk around on the stage and use my hands.
When presenting from a desk, I “bring in” my movements a bit so that they don’t go beyond the video frame. I watch myself out of the corner of my eye to know the edges as I am talking.
I have sometimes used a standing desk configuration to be a bit more natural. Still, given the constraints of standing in one place when speaking versus sitting, I think I prefer sitting.
You need to be more effusive, more visible when presenting with slides through a video conferencing system. You will be seen in a small video window in the corner, so you want to be more than a “talking head.”
Before I talk, I will usually check what the background behind me looks like using zoom or Photobooth on the mac. That gives me an idea of what is visible behind me when I am talking. I generally try to clean up, so that there isn’t a mess for people to focus on. I will sometimes add a few small things of visual interest in the background, though. I think that is more humanizing and also gives some easter eggs for the audience.
Be careful when previewing what you think the audience will be able to see in your environment. On multiple occasions, I have cleaned up to the edges of what I saw as the video frame. Only to find that zoom had been showing me a cropped view of what everyone else could see. Quite embarrassing to watch a recording and see a pile of stuff on your floor that you didn’t realize other people could see.
Substance Over Style
In the end, everything above is about polish, not content. If you have something novel, something interesting, to say, that is the most critical thing. If you have a limited time to prepare, focus on making sure that what you present will be useful and informative to your audience. Rehearse your talk so that you feel comfortable presenting it and can smoother over any hiccups with technology or literal hiccups.
If your content is right and you are comfortable presenting it, your audience will remember it as a good talk. Then you can focus on cleaning up that pile of t-shirts in the corner of your room or make sure that you don’t look like a vampire because of the lighting.
If you are upping your remote presentation game, I’d love to hear your tips in the comments.
If your company is starting to plan for getting back into your office, now is a good time for you to schedule a personal strategy day.
In the whirlwind of the day-to-day work, it is often hard to carve out time for something that does not have a specific deliverable. Working from home can be even more challenging because of the additional pressures of helping your family. In the tech lead training program I am doing at Onfido, we are currently discussing how to be more strategic leaders. A familiar dictum of strategic thinking is the criticality of taking the time to think and plan.
The Personal Strategy Day
Liminal spaces are the transitionary spaces between things. In the liminal space between moving from working at home to being back fully in the office environment, you have an opportunity to try something new—a personal strategy day.
Block out a day in your calendar as people start moving back to the office. There will be some turbulence then as everyone is transitioning. It is the perfect time to start thinking about what you want to accomplish for yourself and your team before the whirlwind starts up again.
The Personal Off-site
Companies schedule off-sites to get away from the distractions of the office. If you can find a “third place” (a place that is not your office or your home) where you can focus, that is ideal. If not, book a secluded conference room in your office, or find an empty desk far from where you usually sit. If you are still at home, let your family know you are working, and need some blocks of focused time.
Don’t read your e-mail. Don’t take any meetings. Your job on that day is to think and plan. To help me focus, I will usually print out whatever supporting materials I think I need and work on paper to avoid the lure of the notifications and other electronic distractions. Think of this as a gift of time and focus that you are giving yourself.
What to consider
Think of the time before the lockdowns began. You may have just been starting on your 2020 commitments and deliverables. What was going well then? What were your concerns? Now think through what you have learned about your team, the work, and yourself during the lockdown. What do you want to keep, and what do you want to discard as you go back to the office? What about the industry you are in, and the world at large has changed? What new pitfalls and opportunities are there? Now think ahead to the rest of the year. What new goals should you have for yourself and your team?
Take notes. Write things down. You will want to refer to them as you go through the year to revisit or remind yourself of your thinking.
Now make a plan. Not too detailed because the world is going to keep changing. Detailed enough that you feel as if you have something against which to execute. Write that down also. With milestones, if possible.
Finally, think about the process you just completed. Did it work for you? Would you do it again? If so, what would you change next time?
Retrospect and Revisit
This whole process may take anywhere from a couple of hours for you to an entire day. Don’t be too preoccupied with the length of time you spend. You are starting to build a practice of taking time for strategic thinking, so this is about taking more time than you have before.
If you found this valuable, you may want to plan your next strategy day for six or twelve months from now. Again, block it out in the calendar early and protect that time!
You may also find that it is good to schedule smaller blocks of time, weekly or monthly, to revisit your plan, track progress, and make adjustments. These blocks of time are strategic thinking too!
If you struggle to keep time for strategy, building a structured approach like a personal strategy day may help you create a practice. Using the liminal times like transitioning from lockdown back to whatever it is that comes after is an opportunity to block and protect time. The liminal times are also crucial for strategy because your past assumptions are likely no longer correct, and there may be some opportunities or challenges that weren’t visible before.
I’ve spent the last several years building a structured personal strategy process for myself. Many people have inspired my practice. Their suggestions may inspire you as well.
The planners from the Ink+Volt team helped me build some structure around my strategy, and also regular time to revisit and update it. Kate Matsudaira (who is also a very established technology leader) provides useful structured planning and strategic thinking documents in her newsletter and on their blog. https://inkandvolt.com/blogs/articles
The great thing about being in technology is that it is a growing field. There are tons of jobs, and companies are always complaining about how hard it is to find talent.
That is until it isn’t.
It isn’t clear what will happen during this pandemic, but the layoffs and hiring slowdowns or pauses have started.
Many developers have never known a time when companies were not clamoring for their services and bidding against each other.
Having my startup go bust in the dot-com bubble bursting of 2000-2001 and having seen what employment options were like in 2008-2009, I thought I could give some advice to those of you who may be in brand new territory.
If you find yourself unemployed during a bust, you will need to change your tactics. You may be used to an employee’s market, but you are entering an employer’s market. Companies will suddenly find many options for their roles—very qualified, even overqualified, folks who are willing to take a lower salary for their positions. Jobs you wouldn’t have considered previously are no longer returning your e-mails. They can find people better than you cheaper.
Even if you currently have a good job, the security of that role may not be what you expected. Be prepared.
Save your money
If you live somewhere expensive, the rent and other prices are likely to go down more slowly than salaries. You need to start cutting your expenses and build up a cash reserve.
Hopefully, you already have a few months of money put aside somewhere other than the stock market. In a crash, selling your investments in the dip is the last resort. If you don’t have that cash reserve, start building it now.
Stop unnecessary purchases: buy groceries instead of door-dashing meals, take public transportation instead of Lyft, do your laundry instead of sending it out. This is the way that most people live.
You will be surprised how much money you can save by making a few changes. Once you have your reserve (enough to live on with a reduced, reasonable, lifestyle for a few months), you can go back to your spending patterns, or continue to build your savings (which is smarter). During the previous busts, very good, very senior developers ended up unemployed for many months.
I left a good job at Microsoft to join a startup in 1999. That startup crashed a few months later. After trying to help the leadership revive it for a few months, I joined a friend in building a new startup. We had some angel money, but I was paying the rent and some of the other bills myself sometimes. We were ready to go out for our first real round of funding in September of 2001.
After 9/11, what was left of the investment and job market completely fell apart. We could not raise money. After a few months of trying to keep things going, I needed to start earning a paycheck again. I was selling my stock to pay the bills, and those shares were now worth half of it they had been before.
I assumed it would be easy to find a job. It always had been.
Jobs were suddenly scarce.
I found myself applying blindly to companies that I would never have considered before. Few replied.
Weeks turned into months. I started to lose faith. Occasionally, I would get an actual interview. But by then, the fire had gone out in my eyes. I was passed over for roles that required way less experience than I had. I had lost my confidence, and it showed in interviews.
Eventually, through a friend, I was able to land a contracting job, back at Microsoft. It was a bit humiliating, but I was happy to be working and earning again.
I later found out that I was one of the last people to get that level of contract. The contracting company realized that it could hire people of my seniority at lower contract rates.
Working again gave me my confidence back. I did well and got converted back into a full-time role. When I did, though, my manager negotiated my salary down. I had to take a serious pay cut. I had no choice, and he knew it. I took the job.
Now, as an employee again, I was on interview loops. I spoke to many good developers who were in the same situation I had just left. They had lost their confidence, just like I had. Their answers to questions were non-committal. They were tentative. They were so used to being rejected that it made it hard to approve them.
If you find yourself in that situation, you need to do your absolute utmost to project a positive aspect and some self-confidence in your discussions with recruiters and employers. Even if you have to fake it. Displaying confidence will make a substantial difference in how you interview.
Some money is better than none
If you get an offer, it may be well for a lot less than you expect. You may need to take it anyway. Some money coming in is better than none. The market will rebound eventually, and salaries will go up again. When that happens, you will be able to find a new role that will pay you appropriately. I left Microsoft for a second time when the market rebounded, and I got an offer for more than my old salary from somewhere else.
If the offer is much, much too low, take it. Keep looking for another role, but now with some security. No one says you have to put every position on your resume.
What you want to do and what you can do
Are you a developer, but a company is open to giving you a job as a tester or program manager? Are you an engineering manager, but a company is interested in talking to you about a product manager role?
If you are finding it hard to find a job doing what you want to do, it may be time for a temporary (or permanent) career change.
I wouldn’t automatically recommend this, though. If you switch into another role, when the market opens up, you may find it hard to go back to your preferred job. The market now sees you as a product manager or tester and may not consider you for a development role (especially if you are in the new position for a while). You may find that you enjoy the new job and want to pursue a new career, which could be a benefit. This situation happened to a few friends of mine during the 2008 crash.
If you decide to take the career-switching role out of necessity, make sure you keep your development chops up: contribute to open source, build apps or sites, whatever keeps your skills up-to-date.
You may be tempted to take a role outside the industry. This should always be the absolute last resort. Even with a strong resume, you may find it hard to get back in if you are in a very different field for a few years.
The sad fact for those who struggle during these periods is that most folks in the field will keep their jobs. When their companies start hiring again, these people will have a strong survivor’s bias. They may not understand the choices you had to make.
Build (and maintain) your network
Keeping up with your friends in the industry is probably going to be your best bet at finding a new role. Your friends can get you past the gatekeepers at the companies and make sure you are seen. They also may have more insight into what roles are open.
At first, it may be difficult to reach out to them. You may be embarrassed about the situation you are in. Get over it.
If you have been in the same company for a long time, or don’t have a big network in your area, start attending meetups or local conferences. Meet developers at other companies. You are likely to meet a lot of other folks in your situation, this is ok. You can form a group to share tips about companies hiring, maybe they may know someone at a company with a role appropriate for you.
Stay in your safe harbor
If you have a good job, with a good salary, keep it. Build your savings because even good companies don’t always survive. If you were considering that it might be time to move on and find a new role, don’t.
Even if you have an offer in hand, when companies hit a rough patch, after freezing hiring, they start rescinding offers. A friend of mine left his steady job during the bust to join another established company. He quit his old job and then the weekend before he started his new one, his offer was rescinded. He was now unemployed. His former company didn’t want him back. They got someone more senior for his role at the same salary.
If you have been privileged to not know a time when you were worried about money, this will be scary. Hopefully, you find a new job, and this time will be brief. Many people in the world are not that lucky. They live constantly worrying about how they will pay their rent, or feed their families. When you are on the other side of this, realize how lucky you are and take your new perspective to be a better, more empathetic person. Do your best to help those in need, now that you have an understanding of what their reality is.
It will get better
Economies are cyclical. After the dot-com bust, there was exceptional growth in the tech industry. After the 2008 contraction, the tech sector went back into massive growth mode. If you lose your job and find it hard to get a new one, don’t despair. Things will get better. Until then, just focus on doing what you need to until that happens. Learn from this experience and be ready for the next contraction, because there will be one. Always.
If you don’t lose your job and you are in a position to make hiring decisions, try to be human. If you interview someone who seems to have lost all hope, try to see the person underneath who has had some bad luck. If you were lucky enough not to lose your job, don’t think you are better than those who did. Ask about their choices. Don’t assume that if someone went from being a developer to doing another job that it was a deliberate choice. Understand their story before making a decision.
These are amazingly challenging times for many people. Remember that if you lose your job during this downturn, even if things seem very bleak, you are probably still better off than 95% of the world’s population. If you want to grow your skills while looking for a job, you could build a website for a charity. That will leverage your skills, build your confidence, and do something for others too.
In September of 2019, I gave a talk “Developing Your Developers: Constructing Career Paths For Your Technologists” at the Honeypot Hive Conference in Berlin, Germany. The slides from the talk are below. There were many questions from the audience that I didn’t have time to answer. The questions and answers are here. The talk was recorded. I’m hoping that the video will be posted in the near future.
How the organizations you worked in were going about diversity recruiting? What kinds of initiatives were being taken?
In companies where we have had made good progress on diversity recruiting, we used a few different initiatives:
Made it clear to the organization that it was a priority by regular communication, and updates on our progress
Engaged the recruiting team to ensure that hiring pipelines included a reasonable slate of candidates from underrepresented groups, even if that meant taking longer to fill the role.
Incentivized external recruiters with bonuses when we hired candidates from underrepresented groups
Actively participated with external groups supporting underrepresented people in the industry
Ensured that every hiring pipeline included a diverse panel
Can you give an example of what you retroactively changed in a career framework without being too intrusive?
At Spotify, we created a new framework where there had been none. At Avvo, we completely replaced a very traditional structure with one more suited to our culture. At Onfido, we are currently evolving our framework. We are making conscious deltas from the previous career-pathing model to support how our culture has evolved. We have clear goals and will follow the path described in my talk to make sure that the team understands and supports the changes.
How did you test the distribution?
We tested the distribution by doing an exercise with all the managers where we did a preliminary slotting of each person into what level we thought they would go into, including doing a calibration across teams. We then compared the resulting distribution with the one we expected to have when we designed the framework. This simulation also served as part of the training for the managers in the organization.
How do you roll out an updated growth framework in a company where you have something in place? Do you then re-map existing people within new levels?
You should roll out a new framework in a similar way to creating a new structure from scratch, but you should make the process of how you will map from the existing framework to the new one explicitly part of the plan. The mapping will be unique to the old and new pathing models, but you should do a calibration step to make sure that people get mapped fairly.
A lot of companies do give you more money only when you threaten to leave. Should people be rewarded for staying also when they don’t get promoted with a title?
If the only way for an employee to get a raise is for them to threaten to leave, then the company’s compensation system is broken, and they will struggle to retain employees.
Do you think there is a possibility to develop an application for career development? (If yes, let’s meet :))
I know of one, https://www.progressionapp.com/, our design team uses it at Onfido. In general, it is hard to develop a career development tool that would be useful for multiple companies because, by requirement, it would need to be generic. I’m advocating for each company to build a unique career development framework. So, there is a mismatch there.
Is there a single company doing all of this well?
I think that many companies do this well. I only have direct experience with the ones that I have worked at, though.
Thank you, Kevin, for your interesting speech. I don’t have a question but as introvert I wanted to thank you for bringing up this issue.
You are welcome!
What about the people who are not promoted, do they have to work on continuous improvement to reach the goal.? Or are they considered as under achiever.
That will be contingent on the company culture. Some companies have an “up or out” culture that expects people to be continually working towards the next milestone in their career progression, or they will be moved out of the company. Other companies support folks who do not choose to pursue the next level. It’s a decision that must be incorporated into the design of the framework itself.
What to do when someone wants to be a manager but is clearly not going to be a good manager – how do you present other options to them?
You should have tracks that support people who want to remain and progress as individual contributors as well as those who want to move into management. If people can move forward in their careers in either track, then there is no pressure to move into management to advance in their career.
If you have good IC and manager paths and someone wants to move into management even if they aren’t suited for it, then you can have an honest conversation about how you see their skills relative to the role that they want.
You mention candidates having all the criteria for the next role. In some cases is it not impossible to have this without experience in the next role?
It is the responsibility of the manager to help people progress in their careers by allowing them to grow by taking on additional responsibilities when they are ready.
The manager should be giving the employee chances to get the experience needed to progress.
Any tips on creating a meaningful growth path in a small company without much hierarchy, where vertical growth is very limited?
In a smaller company, people can feel meaningful growth and career progression without a formal career path. If you do create a career path, you have to build it so that people can progress even without company growth.
Rather than building a career path, instead, focus on making sure people have opportunities to learn new things and take on new responsibilities and then find ways to celebrate them when they do. You can give people meaningful milestones in their personal development without having to make a formal career path.
This mostly considers a straight or slight forking line of development. What about moving across the business. A dev becoming product etc. How do you roadmap?
You can decide if you want to support this in your career pathing design explicitly. It does not tend to happen that often, so unless you want this to be part of your culture, you can probably treat it as an exceptional case.
If you don’t want to be explicit about how to transfer between functions, you can have people apply to the role they would like to switch to and evaluate their level against the new career path just like any candidate.
How can you make an attractive offer in regards to career development for developers? Can you give some concrete examples?
Make your career path and core parts of your culture public, given documentation on them to candidates. When you interview the candidate, ask them where they want to go with their career and then discuss how your career pathing framework can support their development.
I’m not sure I understand what you mean by concrete examples here. Feel free to clarify in the comments.
Would you recommend including values into the promotion process? If yes, how?
Your company’s values should be part of your career pathing framework and, therefore, part of the promotion process. If your companies values are not part of your career pathing, then you send a message to the organization that the values are not real values.
One way to tie the values into the pathing is to think about how each value would be demonstrated at progressive levels of professional maturity and use that as part of the requirements for each level.
What do you think about creative naming of roles? A lot of companies are renaming roles to make them sound more exclusive etc does this confuse career paths?
At this point, I think software engineering titles are so polluted from title inflation that it doesn’t matter what we call them anymore.
There are two benefits I see from using a more “traditional” title naming scheme. One advantage is that the job posting is easier to find, and when a recruiter contacts a candidate about the role, it may make it easier to decide if the candidate approaches them back. The second benefit is that people may have a title that they are mentally aiming for, “Principal Developer” is more likely to be someone’s career goal than “Master of the coding arts.”
You can always choose to have internal and external titles. One is the title that people inside the company use when talking to each other, and the other is the one that people use when talking to external people. People will do that naturally when speaking to outside people anyway, rather than try to explain some unique title naming scheme.
How do you make sure we don’t bias towards the people we have now, while ignoring the people who may join in the next year with different motivations?
If you have experience working in companies at different stages, you can try to anticipate what the next set of joiners may want, but it is probably a futile exercise. Focus on the company you are today. Make sure that you revisit and revise your career pathing framework with a reasonable frequency so that if it doesn’t perfectly align with the motivations of a new joiner, then they know they will have an input into the next iteration.
My last company decided to create a career path when I asked and for me that was a red flag. It means they were not thinking about employee progression. Agree?
Without more context, it is tough for me to make a sound judgment. In my talk, I make the point that you can create an employee progression framework too early. The company needs to move from the phase of “will the company exist a year from now?” to “what will my role be if I choose to stay another three years?” If you are asking the second question at a seed-stage startup, you are probably in the wrong place.
Many companies treat tech career pathing by intertwining seniority and leadership. What about people who want to grow and not lead? There can only be one CTO?
I am going to rephrase your question in the way that I believe you intended to ask. Please correct me in the comments if I got it wrong. I think you meant “intertwining seniority and MANAGEMENT.” I expect senior individual contributors to be technical leaders just as much as I expect senior people managers to be leaders.
In my talk, I make the point that companies should not intertwine these two things. There should be an individual contributor track and a management track, and as much as reasonable, the responsibilities and pay should be comparable, right up to the C-level.
As you say, there can be only one CTO. However, there can also be a Chief Architect, who may not be part of the executive team, but who has a level of responsibility and leadership equivalent to an SVP or similarly senior role.
When you have built a well functioning engineering team and things have stabilized, how do you keep career progression open?
I have been privileged to work in some very stable, well-functioning engineering teams, including people with multiple decades of tenure.
The biggest challenge to keeping career progression open is an unhealthy retention rate (too high), especially if organizational growth is near flat. I have seen this create a problem in an organization where up-and-coming talent leaves because they have a cap on their growth since there are no senior roles available. This describes one company I left after several years of very positive career growth. I knew that I had reached a level where I would be stuck, potentially for many years, because there were no roles likely to open above me for some time, and the company kept headcount flat year over year.
The best thing you can do in that situation is to help your up-and-coming talent find new roles outside the organization, and then keep in touch with them, so that when a senior role does open up, you can hopefully get them to return.
How do you know an idea is worth stealing/it makes sense in your organisation?
Has the idea worked in an organization your size? Do you see it scaling up or down to your dimensions of an organization? Does it align with your culture? Would you need to do some culture change work to implement it? Is there a way you can try it in a limited way to test it in your organization? And of course, does it sound like a good idea to you? An idea that you can champion?
Do you think it’s good to have career path development for start up with 60 people?
How old is the company? What is the average tenure of an employee? If both of those are low numbers, then probably not. It is maybe too early for you to focus on career path development. Unless managers are getting questions about career development commonly from employees, that should be your first warning sign that it is time to think about career pathing.
Doesn’t waiting for the timing to build a career pathing seem reactive? Ideally an organization should be proactive i.e think ahead of your employees.
Yes, it is reactive. I think about it this way: One of the most attractive elements of a startup is the flexibility and freedom that come from being a small, growing company. Trying to impose structure and process too early can feel “corporate” too soon to those employees. It is also hard to establish what responsibilities levels should have as the team is still forming. You are likely to build a framework that matches current employees (who don’t want structure) instead of the one that will work for the employees who join later and are expecting more structure.
If your company is already established and is of a certain size and attracting employees who want more structure, then you have probably waited too long.
Do you think a good career development framework kan help with developer retention?
A useful career development framework primarily exists to support retention. Beyond establishing career paths for employees, it also helps benchmark salaries for new hires. A career development framework ensures that pay is fair relative to the market (which is also essential for retention).
If you read the slides and have questions not answered above, please ask them in the comments.